Disaster and Challenges in Indonesia

Observing Indonesia disaster data in February 2017, the incidence of disasters has increased 23% compared to the previous month. In February 2017, the incident amounted

379 while in January 2017 there were 309. It is looked up on disaster trends, the period
2002 to 2016 has increased. Based on total number of incidents during the period, hydro-meteorological disasters, such as flood, landslide, flash flood, and tornado, dominate
these figures. It shows the background that must be addressed in disaster management as well as a challenge in Indonesia.

Disaster has obviously interfered with social life, and even number of dead victims. Data of National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) showed a significant increase in the number of dead victims as a result of the disaster, 19 people in January 2017 and 45 people in the following month. The disaster also caused an economic loss, damages to infrastructure and the environment. Global climate change, critical watersheds, land management have triggered trends of hydro-meteorological disasters today.

kebakaran riau
Foto: BPBD Provinsi Riau

Hazard-prone archipelago that is not separated from from reality and a series of geo dynamic  and world ring of fire. Moreover, hydro-meteorological factors that trigger the deadliest disaster, namely landslide. On the other hand, the condition of vulnerability faced by the people of Indonesia. Nevertheless, the risk is able to be minimized if it has sufficient capacity. Here is data on exposed population to natural disasters based on data BNPB, UNFPA and BPS.

No Type of Incidents Regency/City Exposed Population (million)
1 Earthquake 386 148,4
2 Tsunami 233 3,8
3 Volcano eruption 75 1,2
4 Flood 315 63,7
5 Landslide 274 40,9
6 Tide Waves and Abration 11,1

When viewed from the distribution of disaster events per province in 2016, Central Java were the highest with 639 times. Three provinces in Java Island are areas prone to disasters, namely Central Java, East Java and West Java. In addition to the terms of the geographical and hydro-meteorological, these three provinces have a high population at once in the category of potential exposure to natural hazards.

Meanwhile, on the distribution of events by regency, five regencies/cities in Central Java puts the highest number of events, namely Cilacap (100), Magelang (56), Wonogiri (56), Banyumas (53) and Temanggung (50).

However, number of incidents in the national region tends to increase. The increasing disasters which 92% is hydro-meteorological disasters caused by nature and anthropogenic. Natural factors include the impact of global climate change and the vulnerability of the environment, while anthropogenic leads to high impacts at environmental degradation, settlement in disaster-prone areas, critical watersheds, and urbanization.

SONY DSCThe series of disaster events cause huge losses to the state. Average losses every year due to disasters around Rp 30 trillion. The strategic measures that concern the government, particularly the BNPB and Local Disaster Management Agency (BPBD), in the response is the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction (DRR). In the context of development, DRR should be integrated at every national development plan. In Indonesia, the investment value of 1 US dollar can save 10 dollars in case of disaster. When a disaster occurs, the development process will decrease sharply or suffer huge losses if the DRR efforts inadequate. Moreover, the recovery will be longer if the funds or risk finance  is inadequate.

Paradigm of DRR is still limited to be implemented and integrated at development process even though it is mandated in the national law, i.e. Laws Number 24 Year 2007 on Disaster Management. DRR investment is not fully considered in an investment of development.

It is admitted that 505 BPBDs has formed at province, regency and city level, the understanding of disaster management is still in emergency response and recovery phase. Reality faced that coverage prone areas to disaster in Indonesia is wide and accessibility is not all easy.

Based on the losses and the impacts, disasters disrupt targets of economic growth and reduce social welfare nationally. It has prompted the central government to draw up priority programs in reducing disaster risk index within 136 regencies/cities that have high economic growth.

The next challenge is the implementation of disaster management by multi-stakeholders which has not been planned and integrated as expected. Therefore, disaster management, including DRR mainstreaming, is participative action or disaster is everyone’s business. This means that the disaster management as the efforts through three pillars, namely government, civil society and private sectors.

gempa acehNarrative above is a citation of public lecture delivered by Chief of BNPB Willem Rampangilei in front of 100 undergraduate to doctoral students of Gadjah Mada University, in Yogyakarta on February 21, 2017.

At the end of lecture, the Chief of BNPB said that university can contribute to the scientific based disaster management, such as scientific and measured based studies. On the other hand, university is a place to develop science and technology through the disaster study centers.

Translated from the previous article, “Bencana dan Tantangan di Indonesia”
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