The number of disaster events in Indonesia in 2018 were smaller than in 2017. The National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) recorded 2,572 disasters during 2018, while 2,372 in 2017. However, in those years, hydro-meteorological disasters remained dominant, such as tornadoes, floods and landslides.
Although the number of disasters was less than a year ago, the death toll was 12 times greater. In 2017, a total of 2,372 disasters caused 377 deaths, while last year 4,814 people died. This high number is inseparable from the earthquake and tsunami in several regions. Likewise, the number of affected and displaced people is 3 times greater than in 2017.
|Death and missing (persons)||377||4,814|
|Affected and Displaced (persons)||3.49 million||10.24 million|
When viewed from the number of disasters occurring per province, Central Java occupies the top rank with the number of disasters reaching 582 times, East Java 448, West Java 339, Aceh 160 and South Kalimantan 97. Two districts in Central Java that experience many disasters include Cilacap 58 times and Magelang 43, while for areas in East Java, Wonogiri Regency 56 times, and West Java, Bogor 78 times. This fact needs to be aware of together because Java is the most densely populated region compared to other islands in Indonesia. The potential for major threats is not only hydro-meteorological disasters but also geology such as earthquakes that can trigger tsunamis.
The disaster not only caused casualties but also caused damage to a high scale. In 2017 the disaster damaged more than 47 thousand housing units, while in 2018 it reached 320 thousand units. The amount of damage nearly 7 times compared to 2017 was inseparable from the earthquake and tsunami in several regions. In the case of an earthquake in Central Sulawesi, the earthquake that triggered a tsunami and liquefaction had a massive impact. Thousands of houses were destroyed due to phenomena of liquefaction such as in the Petobo, Balaroa, Jono Oge and Sibalaya regions.
Looking at BNPB data in 2017, the average state loss due to the disaster is around USD 2,13 trillion. In 2018, if you only saw two disaster events in the provinces of West Nusa Tenggara and Central Sulawesi, the total value of damage and losses reached USD 2,8 trillion. Rehabilitation and reconstruction with the principle of building back better and safer.
The state burden for disaster management will be even more severe if prevention and mitigation have not been a priority in all aspects of life and development. Investment in disaster risk reduction is very significant as well as the preparation of individuals, families and communities. Indonesia is a region with fertile beauty but also prone to disasters. BNPB released that the prediction of disaster events for 2019 is still high. Hydro-meteorological disasters still dominate this year. In addition, damage to watersheds (DAS), critical land, the rate of forest destruction, environmental damage, changes in land use and high vulnerability is still widespread. In addition, a paleotsunami study by Professor Ron Harris from Brigham Young University showed that at present the archipelago is in a wake-up phase, in a period of 100 – 300 years. However, the earthquake itself cannot be predicted with certainty the location, how big and when. Moreover, we still have 127 active volcanoes as part of ring of fires that not spew out volcanic materials but also trigger tsunamis.
Learning from 2018, we need to work more together on disaster management. Disaster management is everybody business. The data related to the disaster in 2018 should be evaluated jointly by all parties. What is targeted in the Sendai – Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030 still requires strategic and tactical steps. The 7 targets for the 2015-2030 Sendai Framework are as follows:
- Reduce mortality
- Reduce affected people
- Reduce economic loss
- Reduce damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services
- Increase number of countries with national and local DRR strategies
- Increase international cooperation
- Increase availability and access to multi hazard early warning system and disaster risk information and assessments
Awareness and preparedness are part of the parameters that can help each individual to survive a disaster. In addition, the awareness of each individual, family and community to have a preparedness plan also helps when they have to survive post-disaster. We have very strategic strength to build strong communities together. Desa Tangguh (Destana) or Resilience Village has been initiated in more than 2,700 villages, the DRR forum in 25 provinces, and hundreds of facilitators and thousands of volunteers. Strengthening the DRR paradigm remains a priority in disaster management.
Meanwhile, disaster education at an early stage can be an investment to build awareness and preparedness for each individual. But the challenges faced in the context of disaster education. Quoted from the article entitled ‘Is it Important on Disaster Education Curriculum’ by Avianto Amri (2019) that there are three main challenges, namely (1) the ability of teachers who are still low in teaching disaster education, (2) the availability of teaching materials related to disaster education that is still limited, and ( 3) weak existing policies regarding disaster safe schools. The strength that we have can be used to support the implementation of disaster education in schools.
Let us start together to understand the environment around us. We can access various sources to get knowledge about the potential hazards. We can also take advantage of several applications to increase self and family preparedness. Like life360, InaRISK, MAGMA Indonesia, BMKG Info and Disaster Alert. We also have a Disaster Preparedness Day that falls on April 26. We can take advantage of that date to practice as well to build disaster preparedness.